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REFERENCES

In healthcare, exposure to nature and live plants results in improved medical outcomes:

 

  • Lowered heartrate and clinical stress

  • Reduced pain and medication

  • Improved restoration and recovery time

  • Shortened hospital stays and lower medical costs

  • Improved satisfaction and overall wellbeing

 

For patients in hospitals, exposure to real plants resulted in lower levels of experienced stress

Beukeboom, C.J., D. Langeveld, and K. Tanja-Dijkstra. 2012. Stress reducing effects of real and artificial nature in a hospital waiting room. J. Alt. Compl. Med. 18 (4): 329–333.

 

Live indoor plants improve health and well-being benefits in the workplace. A few of the highlights are:

 

  • Offices experienced a 15% increase in productivity when plants were included in office space

  • Employees with plant views have fewer headaches and completed concentration tests 19% faster than those without plants

  • Workers in offices with poor light without natural views use more sick leave hours

  • Plants at work are significant in employee perceptions of friendliness, comfort, and freshness of the workplace

  • 97% of employees would like to have more plants in the workplace

 

Interior Plants provide a 20% reduction in fatigue, 30% reduction in headaches, 30% reduction in sore/dry throats and 40% fewer coughs

Fjeld, T., et al. "Effect of Indoor Foliage Plants on Health and Discomfort Symptoms Among Office Workers," Indoors + Built Environment, 1998, 7:204-206. (Norway).

 

Plant-filled rooms contain 50-60 percent fewer disease-causing airborne molds and bacteria than rooms without plants.

Wolverton, B. C. and J. D. Wolverton, "Interior Plants: Their Influence on Airborne Microbes Inside Energy-Efficient Buildings," Journal of the Mississippi Academy of Sciences, 1996, 41(2): 99-105. (U.S.).

 

When plants were placed in offices, the relative humidity increased significantly and stabilized at the recommended range of 30 to 60 percent.

Lohr, V. I. "Particulate Matter Accumulation on Horizontal Surfaces in Interiors: Influence of Foliage Plants," Atmospheric Environment, 1996, 30:2565-2568. (U.S.).

 

Indoor plants create oxygen and remove harmful VOC contaminates

Giese, M., U. Bauer-Doranth, C. Langebartels and H. Sandermann, Jr., "Detoxification of Formaldehyde by the Spider Plant (Chlorophytum comosum L.) and by Soybean (Glycine max L.) Cell Suspension Cultures," Plant Physiology, 1994, 104:1301-1309. (Germany).

Wolverton, B. C. and J. D. Wolverton, "Plants and Soil Microorganisms - Removal of Formaldehyde, Xylene and Ammonia from the Indoor Environment," Journal of the Mississippi Academy of Sciences, 1993, 38(2): 11-15. (U.S.).

Wood, R. A., et al. "Study of Absorption of VOCs by Commonly Used Indoor Plants," Proceedings: Indoor Air '99, 1999, Vol. 2:690-694. (Australia).

Plants help lower our heart rate

Callaghan, A. and S. Mallory-Hill. 2016. Biophilia and nature-based features to support stress reduction in knowledge workers. 12 p.

Smith, A. and M. Pitt. 2011. Healthy workplaces: plantscaping for indoor environmental quality. Facilities 29 (3/4): 169–187.

 

Plants are proven to reduce stress

Brown, D. K., Barton, J. L., & Gladwell, V. F. (2013). Viewing nature scenes positively affects recovery

of autonomic function following acute-mental stress. Environmental Science and Technology, 47(11), 5562-5569.

 

Interior plants can lead to healthy, productive workplaces through enhanced attention capacity, lower stress levels, and higher job satisfaction from viewing plants

Gilchrist, K., C. Brown, and A. Montarzino. 2015. Workplace settings and wellbeing: Greenspace use and views contribute to employee wellbeing at peri-urban business sites. Land. Urban Plan. 138: 32-40.

Raanaas, R.K., K.H. Evensen, D. Rich, G. Sjøstrøm, and G. Patil. 2011. Benefits of indoor plants on attention capacity in an office setting. Journal of Environmental Psychology 31 (1): 99–105.

 

Plants significantly lower workplace stress and enhance worker productivity by 12%

Ulrich, Roger S., et al. "Stress Recovery During Exposure to Natural and Urban Environments," J. of Environ. Psychology, 1991, 11:201-230. (U.S.).

Lohr, V. I., et al. "Interior Plants May Improve Worker Productivity and Reduce Stress in a Windowless Environment," J. Environ. Hort., 1996, 14:97-100. (U.S.).

 

Offices in the Netherlands and Great Britain experienced a 15% increase in worker productivity when plants were included in office space

Korpela, K., J. De Bloom, M. Sianoja, T. Pasanen, and U. Kinnunen. 2017. Nature at home and at work: Naturally good? Links between window views, indoor plants, outdoor activities and employee well-being over one year. Land. Urban Plan. 160: 38-47.

Nieuwenhuis, M., C. Knight, T. Postmes, and S.A. Haslam. 2014. The relative benefits of green versus lean office space: three field experiments. Journal of Experimental Psychology - Applied 20 (3): 199–214.

https://www.psychologicalscience.org/news/minds-business/a-green-office-may-beat-a-lean-office.html

https://www.gwern.net/docs/nature/2014-nieuwenhuis.pdf

 

People connected to nature in both their internal and external environment reported a 15% higher level of well-being

Howell, A. J., Dopko, R. L., Passmore, H. A., & Buro, K. (2011). Nature connectedness: Associations

with well-being and mindfulness. Personality and Individual Differences, 51(2), 166-171.

 

Workers in environments that incorporate natural elements, such as daylight and live plants, reported 15% higher levels of creativity than levels of those who work in environments devoid of nature

Ceylan, C., Dul, J., & Aytac, S. (2008). Can the office environment stimulate a manager’s creativity?.

Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing & Service Industries, 18(6), 589-602.

 

Visible greenery, both indoors and out, reduces stress and increases the ability to concentrate by as much as 19%

Alker, J., M. Malanca, C. Pottage, and R. O’Brien. 2014. Health, wellbeing & productivity in offices. The next chapter for green building. Rep. World Green Building Council. 87 p.

van Duijin, B., J. Klein Hesselink, M. Kester, and Jansen en Hilde SpittersJ. 2011. ‘Planten in de klas’ [plants in the classroom]. Productschap Tuinbouw (Product Board for Horticulture), Rapport Project.

Nieuwenhuis, M., C. Knight, T. Postmes, and S.A. Haslam. 2014. The relative benefits of green versus lean office space: three field experiments. Journal of Experimental Psychology - Applied 20 (3): 199–214.

 

Workers in offices with poor light and without greenery use more sick leave hours

Elzeyadi, I. (2011). Quantifying the impacts of daylight on occupant’s health. Washington DC: USGBC

Press.

Bringslimark, T., et al. (2008). The association between indoor plants, stress, productivity and sick leave in office workers. Acta Horticulturae 775, 117-121.

 

Plants at work are significant in employee perceptions of comfort, friendliness and freshness

Husti, A.M., I. Ciobanu, R. Cicevan, I. Neacsu, and M. Cantor. 2015. Image of ornamental plants in work enviroments and their effect on employees. Agricultura 95 (3-4): 3–4.

 

88% of workers say having access to the natural indoor elements improved their sense of well-being

United States Case Study: Genzyme Corporation staff survey. In 2004, world-leaders in biotechnology, Genzyme Corporation, designed a new corporate headquarters that includes features such as: natural light; a clear glass exterior; a central atrium with chandeliers at the base that reflect sunlight; indoor gardens; water features; and windows.

HUMAN SPACES: The GlobaI Impact of Biophilic Design in the Workplace

 

When asked about plants in the workplace, 97% of employees would like to have more plants

Husti, A.M., I. Ciobanu, R. Cicevan, I. Neacsu, and M. Cantor. 2015. Image of ornamental plants in work enviroments and their effect on employees. Agricultura 95 (3-4): 3–4.

 

The cost of human capital in the workplace is 10x that of other operating expenses, indoor plants provide a huge return on investment (ROI)

Green Plants for Green Buildings, Authentically Green Interiors, January 2015 p.5

 

One-third of workers say they would be affected by workplace design when choosing a company to work for consequently impacting a company’s ability to attract and retain top talent

Many respondents, a third (33%) in fact, reported that they would be affected by workplace design when choosing to work for a company. This emphasizes how an individual’s surrounding environment can directly influence how they feel about the organization which will inevitably influence their feelings and behaviors when they are working. Therefore, providing workers with an environment that they are comfortable and happy within is likely to go a long way in increasing well-being and productivity, as well as contributing to the retention of staff and reducing employee turnover.

Grinde, B., & Patil, G. G. (2009). Biophilia: does visual contact with nature impact on health and wellbeing?. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 6(9), 2332-2343.

Backhaus, K., & Tikoo, S. (2004). Conceptualizing and researching employer branding. Career Development International, 9(5), 501-517.

Earle, H. A. (2003). Building a workplace of choice: Using the work environment to attract and retain top talent. Journal of Facilities Management, 2(3), 244-257.

Hardy, Q. (2014). The monuments of tech. New York Times.

 

Presenteeism in the Workplace

Presenteeism is defined as both the act of turning up to work while ill, and of displaying low productivity and engagement at work despite being healthy – in both cases it is often referred to as showing ‘face time’. Global figures to estimate its cost to employers do not yet exist, but according to the Foresight study of mental capital and well-being, presenteeism costs UK businesses £1billion per year, a cost estimated at 1.3 times that of absenteeism. In the US, these figures sit at over $200 billion lost per year due to lost productivity associated with poor health. These figures are a clear indicator of the benefit for businesses tackling the issue of presenteeism through a range of measures, including workplace design. An employee’s perception of how valued and supported they are by their employer can be a key determinant of well-being at work. This perception is accounted for in many validated psychological tools that seek to measure well-being in the workplace and it represents a possible inherent benefit of biophilic design - that the act of providing a purpose-designed environment for employees can boost those perceptions of value and support and in turn, impact well-being. Given the economic imperative for organizations to provide positive work environments, and the wealth of academic evidence that shows the positive impact of biophilia, it is surprising that significant percentages of office workers across the globe still have no access to natural light (47%) or greenery (58%) within their environment. Such findings highlight a relatively straight-forward opportunity to improve workspaces and increase well-being, ultimately also reducing the likelihood of presenteeism among employees and keeping productivity levels high.

Klachefsky, M. (2012). Understanding Presenteeism. Retrieved February 2, 2015, from http://

workplacepossibilities.com/wp-content/uploads/Productivity_Insight_3_Understanding_Presenteeism.

Pdf

https://www.standard.com/employer/workplace-possibilities-program/part-one-understanding-presenteeism

https://www.employment-studies.co.uk/system/files/resources/files/507_0.pdf

 

33% say workplace design influences employer selection, impacting ability to attract & retain talent

88% of workers say having access to natural indoor elements increase their level of wellbeing

97% of employees would like to have more plants in the workplace

2024 People–plant Relationships in an Office Workplace: Perceived Benefits for the Workplace and Employees. American Society for Horticultural Science.

https://journals.ashs.org/hortsci/view/journals/hortsci/46/5/article-p744.xml#B6

https://www.uts.edu.au/sites/default/files/indoor_plant_brochure_2014.pdf

https://digitalcommons.lindenwood.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1495&context=faculty-research-papers

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